Posted by the site keeper at 1:33 AM
I have been riding on Vespa since I was in university, 20 years ago. I do not know why I feel so intact with this sexy type of motorcycle and, up to the time being, I always ride on vespa and not other motorcycle. The older the running age of it with the line of time, the more exclusive I feel on the road. I do feel riding in ‘a difference’ among the Japanese cycles crowding in every inch of roads.
You may afford to buy expensive and modern motorcycle in any motor dealer now, but it might not always be with vespa. How much money you may have, you cannot always find a classic vespa in any motor dealers. It is now no longer on sale in any motor shop.
I have two vespas, both of them were manufactured in 60’s. The older was built in 1964 and the younger was born in 1967. Both of them have been accompanying me to work everyday alternately. But do not think that they are dirty and worn out motors, you will see how charming they are on the roads. They are so classics, smooth and unique good-looking scooter of 60’s, ones of few that now are rarely roaming on the road.
It is such a proud of course to ride on old vespa. That is why some riders are still loyal on vespas. Those scooter manias are not only old-aged riders, but also young motorists who do not feel old-fashioned with their old vespa. On the other hand, we, the community of old vespa lovers, have classified these scooters are more than just a means of transportation but vespas are manifestation of arts.
Not only a unique motor, vespa had been a symbol of the coming up of Europe after the Word War II. For Italian, vespa had been the lifestyle at that time and they had been taken role in many films. In Indonesia vespas have been the most popular motor for many decades, despite the fact that now people are less interested in this Italian vehicles.
It was around 100 years ago when Rinaldo Piaggio commencing his business in the aircraft industry. It started with his factory in Genoa in 1884 before it was then extended to other factory in Pisa (1927) and in Pontedera (1924). This business was growing up rapidly when his son, Enrico Piaggio, was in charge of the business.
Surprisingly, when this aircraft industry was growing up fantastically, Enrico Piaggio decided to resign from this industry. Based on his strong intuition, he took another business of common and affordable means of transportation: vespa.
It was D’Ascanio who was then entitled to be responsible to design vespa. His background as the chief of research in the helicopter industry might have influenced the design of vespa. More than just a type of simple, powerful and economic motor, the rear of vespa looks likes a helicopter’s cabin.
In April 1946, 15 units of vespa were on trial. At the end of 1949, a number of 35,000 units were launched and, until 10 years later, Italia had been producing a million of vespas. In 50’s, Piaggio had extended his new factory in Europe, like: Germany, England, French, Belgium and Spain. The great demands of vespas in the world had also encouraged expanding business in Asia, especially in India and Indonesia.
Although now vespas have fewer users in Indonesia, but for us who have been the fanatic lovers, vespas will always accompany us wherever we go. It seems that population of old vespa has been coming fewer and fewer. It has been a suspect that many old vespas were exported abroad due to its high prices. We, the vespas lovers, will absolutely condemn any effort to send old vespas to collectors outside Indonesia.
We do not want the vespas are getting extinct from the country. We will commit to make Vespa, which means as a bee in Italian, always roam the road in the country.
Phillip Turnbull from BSD City, Banten sent a letter to The Jakarta Post and was published by this English paper on the October 22, 2009. His opinion about the real portrait of education and corruption in Indonesia would be a good feed back to those who are concerned in the education.
Below article is quoted from The Jakarta Post, October 22, 2009:
I began teaching English on a voluntary basis several days ago in local kampung school. As a retired teacher, I wanted to make a contribution, however small, to the wellbeing of my adoptive country. Nothing altruistic about it really. Daytime television bores me. The local school is community of people – students, their parents, teachers and supporting staff. These people welcomed me into their school and we began what I hope will be a long, constructive and mutually satisfying relationship.
I spent he first day in the company of visionary, young headmaster and enthusiastic teachers, getting to know them and my new pupils. Naturally, the children we initially shy, but by the time I felt at the end of the day I was greeted cheerfully by any of them in a way I had not encountered before in any school I had previously taught at.
The day was spent in various classrooms, all of them uniformly drab and soulless and in need of urgent paintwork and cleaning. No artworks, posters, study aides, samples of student’s work or audiovisual equipment was evident in any of the room except one. The desk were rickety, and the seats uncomfortable. The rooms were badly ventilated if at all.
The students seemed happy amongst themselves and respectful towards their teachers, but were academically passive. I spent a lot of time asking the simple questions and encouraging them to question me in turn, but with little success. I suspect they were not used to doing so, regardless of any hesitancy about speaking English. I was told, that was “the Indonesia way – students don’t ask questions or express opinion”.
The teaching staff are on duty from seven in the morning until late afternoon, and are burdened with an excessive and exhausting load of classroom teaching. Also, I learned that as a profession, teachers are not highly esteemed in Indonesian society and are poorly paid. Many have to take on other jobs to make ends meet.
This school clearly lacked proper resources and equipment, despite the timely renovations to a few of its dilapidated classrooms. It has not been adequately funded from the vast financial resources available in this country. And there are vast financial resources in this country, if only they didn’t simply get “lost” or “diverted” or blatantly stolen by some among those entrusted with the nation’s money set aside for public use and infrastructure. One day, perhaps, these criminals will bankrupt this country.
Politicians and elite should understand that money spent on education in everyone’s best interest. It requires a log-term view as opposed to mere political expediency and short-term, quick-fix options that have no lasting effect. Education is about the long haul and requires vision, lots of money and planning. Money invested in quality education al all levels and for all children in money well spent.
Free education for every child in Indonesia from kindergarten to the end of senior high school should be taken for granted. Universities should not be education industries primarily focused on vocational training and making money, but centers of learning open to all who are gifted and talented. Perhaps the new politicians might come and visit this school and share their views on the importance of education with the teachers and students and tell them what they plan to do abut it. That would be an interesting class.
BSD CITY, BANTEN
Frasa (phrase) adalah kelompok kata yang memiliki fungsi sama seperti nomina/pronomina, adjektiva, atau pun adverbia, akan tetapi tidak merupakan susunan subyek + predikat (subject + verb) , sehingga kelompok kata ini tidak dapat berdiri sendiri baik sebagai sebuah frasa maupun sebagai sebuah kalimat.
My former friend called me this morning.
My daughter is listening to her favorite music program.
my former friend / her favorite music program merupakan frasa sebab hanya berupa kumpulan kata, tetapi tidak mempunyai susunan subyek + predikat (subject + verb).
Bandingkan dengan contoh berikut:
because he is sick – kumpulan kata ini merupakan klausa sebab mempunyai unsur subject + verb ( he = subject, is = verb). Namun demikian meskipun kelompok kata ini mempunyai unsur subject + verb hanya disebut sebagai klausa, karena tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat dan harus ada klausa yang diikutinya. Supaya mempunyai pengertian penuh klausa ini bisa kita lengkapi, misalnya kita menambahkan di depannya klausa lain sebagai berikut:
He is absent because he is sick (klausa berubah menjadi kalimat majemuk / compound).
He is sick – kelompok kata ini sudah merupakan sebuah kalimat sebab memiliki unsur subject + verb. Dengan menghilangkan kata ‘because’ justru yang semula sebuah klausa berubah menjadi kalimat karena dapat berdiri sendiri dan mempunyai pengertian penuh. Bedanya dengan kalimat di atasnya adalah bahwa kalimat ini merupakan kalimat tunggal (simple sentence) sebab unsur subject + verb-nya hanya satu.
Berdasarkan fungsinya yang dapat sebagai nomina, adjektiva, atau pun adverbia, maka frasa ini dapat digolongkan sebagai frasa nomina/benda (noun phrase), frasa sifat (adjectival phrase), dan frasa keterangan (adverbial phrase).
Frasa nomina/benda (noun phrase)
My ugly dog is always barking (noun phrase sebagai subject).
The official announced the probable delay of arrival (noun phrase sebagai object).
She is a friend of joy and sorrow (noun phrase sebagai complement).
Dua frasa nomina/benda (atau nomina dan frasa nomina) dapat beraposisi/berdampingan. Frasa yang kedua biasanya diapit oleh tanda koma ( ,__, ) atau tanda koma dan titik ( ,___.).
The local newspaper, now a national publication, always accompanies him to start the day (dua noun phrase beraposisi sebagai subject).
He always reads ‘Kedaulatan Rakyat’, the biggest paper in Yogyakarta (dua noun phrase beraposisi sebagai object).
The man with the greatest power is the chief of the city, the mayor of the city development (dua noun phrase sebagai pelengkap/complement).
Frasa adjektiva/sifat (adjectival phrase)
The Miss. Indonesia, beautiful as ever, walked to the stage (adjectival phrase menerangkan nomina).
She was pale with fear (adjectival phrase sebagai complement).
Frasa adverbia/keterangan (adverbial phrase)
Pay me before the end of this year (frasa adverbia waktu).
All cars are parked in front of the building (adverbia tempat).
They moved the fruit with a basket on their head (adverbia cara).
Klausa ( Clause)
Seperti halnya frasa, klausa (clause) juga dapat berfungsi untuk menggantikan nomina, adjektiva, maupun adverbia. Perbedaannya dengan frasa adalah bahwa klausa selalu memiliki susunan subyek + predikat. Sekali pun memenuhi unsur memiliki susunan subyek + predikat, klausa tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat yang mandiri.
She will leave the room later (adverbia).
She will leave the room after she finishes the exams (klausa adverbia /waktu)
Dalam kalimat majemuk (compound sentence) di atas, kita dapati 2 (dua) susunan subyek + predikat, yaitu:
She will leave the room, dan
after she finishes the exams.
Klausa yang pertama dapat berdiri sendiri dan mempunyai pengertian penuh sehingga disebut klausa utama (dependent clause), sedangkan klausa kedua mempunyai ketergantungan pada klausa utama dan tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai kalimat utuh, maka dinamai klausa terikat/anak kalimat (subordinate clause).
1). Anak kalimat berfungsi nomina (subordinate noun-clause)
What he decided surprised all of us (subordinate noun clause sebagai subyek)
We know that he has been cheating us so far (subordinate noun clause sebagai obyek).
The truth is that he does not know much about the matter (subordinate noun clause sebagai complement)
2). Anak kalimat berfungsi sebagai adjektiva (subordinate adjectival clause)
The victims, who were injured in the crash, have been evacuated (subordinate adjectival clause menerangkan subject).
This course suits anyone who has limited time (subordinate adjectival clause menerangkan object).
3). Anak kalimat berfungsi sebagai adverbia/keterangan
He wounded when a punch hit his head (sub. adverbial clause of time = anak kalimat keterangan waktu).
He put it back where he took it (sub. adverbial clause of place = anak kalimat keterangan tempat)
She learned as her teacher has taught her before (sub. adverbial clause of manner = anak kalimat keterangan cara).
Demikian sedikit pembahasan kita mengenai frasa (phrase) dan klausa (clause) yang berguna sebagai dasar pemahaman sebelum kita membahas mengenai kalimat (sentences) dalam bahasan kita mendatang.
Mari kita teruskan Correct English kita. Kali ini kita akan mencoba memahami kata kerja atau verba (verb).Kata kerja atau verba adalah kata yang menunjukkan suatu tindakan atau keadaan, misalnya: climb, sing, draw, talked, wrote
Verba dapat terdiri dari satu maupun lebih dari satu kata.
She writes a letter. (satu kata)
She should have written a letter of her illness. (lebih dari satu kata).
Verb mengalami beberapa perubahan bentuk sehubungan dengan waktu kapan peristiwa itu terjadi. Bentuk perubahan kata kerja ini disebut tenses.
Present tense: I refuse that proposal.
Past tense: I refused that proposal.
Future tense: I shall refuse that proposal.
(Tenses selengkapnya, silakan baca postingan ‘ English For Young Learners’)
Dalam kaitannnya untuk membuat kalimat, verba / kata kerja memerlukan adanya subject. Subject (subyek) adalah sebuah kata atau selompok kata yang melakukan tindakan verba:
Robert reads a novel.
To spend too much money is foolish.
Untuk kalimat transitif, obyek diperlukan untuk kelengkapan kalimatnya.
Object (obyek) adalah kata atau kelompok kata yang dikenakan tindakan verba:
My father reminded him.
I have lost my beautiful pen.
Namun demikian tidak semua verba harus mempunyai object. Dalam kalimat intransitif verba tidak memerlukan object / obyek.
He was dreaming.
They are struggling to survive.
Contoh lain kalimat transitif yang verba-nya memerlukan sebuah object.
My younger daughter is writing a letter. (a letter = object).
He has to shoot the target. (the target = object).
Promina bisa memiliki bentuk yang berbeda, tergantung apakah ia berkedudukan sebagai subject atau object.
I called him loudly but he did not hear me.
Saya / orang pertama tunggal, sebagai subyek menggunakan ‘I ‘, sedangkan sebagai obyek menggunakan ‘me’. Demikian juga ia (laki-laki) sebagai orang ketiga menggunakan ‘he’ sebagai subyek, dan ‘him’ sebagai obyek.
Verba to be (am, is, are) dan bentuk lampaunya (was, were), tidak dapat memiliki object tetapi memerlukan pelengkap atau complement. Verba yang memerlukan pelengkap ini kadang-kadang disebut linking verb, kopula, atau verba penghubung karena fungsinya menghubungkan subyek dengan pelengkap (complement).
He is one of my friends (is = linking verb, one of my friends = complement).
Her farther is a dentist. (is = linking verb, a dentist = complement).
Verba tertentu (finite verb), adalah verba yang subyeknya sudah tertentu. Meskipun subject tidak disebutkan secara eksplisit, tetapi dapat dipahami subject kalimat itu sudah tentu.
Do not smoke at the gas station!
Meskipun tidak disebutkan tetapi subject-nya dapat diartikan sebagai kamu, kalian, atau siapa pun (sudah tentu).
Verba tidak tentu (non-finite verb) adalah verba yang tidak memiliki subject, tetapi verba itu malah berfungsi sebagai subject dalam kalimat.
To delay landing would be fatal.
To solve the problem would take much energy.
Verba juga dapat berfungsi sebagai nomina (kata benda) dan adjektiva (kata sifat).
Reading would lead you to the wider world (reading = nomina)
Standing party tends to be the new style now (standing = adjektiva)
Verba dapat berbentuk aktif maupun pasif. Verba aktif apabila subject melakukan tindakan verba, sedangkan verba pasif apabila subject dikenai tindakan verba.
The judges sent him for five-year imprisonment (subject/the judges melakukan tindakan).
He was sent for five-year imprisonment (subject / he, dikenai tindakan verba).
Bentuk verba juga dapat berbeda apabila dipengaruhi oleh bentuk subject tunggal (singular) atau jamak (plural).
The bird flies.
The birds fly.
Adverbia / Adverb / Kata Keterangan
Adverbia adalah kata yang memberikan keterangan terhadap kata kerja (verba), kata sifat (adjektiva), atau pun kata keterangan (adverbia) yang lain.
He cried loudly. (loudly menerangkan cried = adverbia menerangkan verba)
There was a very faint cry. (very menerangkan faint = adverbia menerangkan adjektiva)
He cried more loudly. (more menerangkan loudly = adverbia menerangkan adverbia)
Bila adverbia menerangkan verba, biasanya adverbia ini menunjukkan bagaimana, kapan, di mana, atau mengapa tindakan verba itu dilakukan. Adverbia yang menunjukkan mengapa kegiatan verba terjadi, biasanya dalam bentuk adverbial clause karena sifatnya berupa penjelasan.
He is crying loudly. ( bagaimana menangisnya? loudly)
He is crying at the moment. ( kapan menagisnya? at the moment )
He is crying in the classroom. ( di mana menangisnya? in the classroom)
He is crying because he has lost his money. (mengapa menangis? because he has lost his money)
Pada umumnya adverbia dibentuk dengan menambahkan –ly pada adjektiva:
loud (adjektiva) – loudly (adverbia)
absolute (adjektiva) – absolutely (adverbia)
Akan tetapi tidak semua adverbia mengikuti ketentuan ini:
This is the fast way (adjektiva). They run fast (adverbia).
This magazine is weekly publication (adjektiva). They publish the magazine weekly (adverbia)
Preposisi / Kata Depan ( Preposition)
Preposisi / kata depan adalah kata yang menunjukkan hubungan antara nomina (kata benda) atau pronomina (kata ganti) dengan bagian lainnya dalam kalimat.
She jumped into the water.
The carpenter took the nail from the wood.
Preposisi biasanya mendahului dan bertalian erat dengan nomina, pronomina, atau frasa / klausa kata benda (noun phrase / noun clause).
Preposisi menunjukkan hubungan tempat:
You must walk around the jungle, not through it (antara around dan through the jungle, menunjukkan hubungan tempat yang berbeda)
Preposisi menunjukkan hubungan waktu:
They came before / during / after the rain (before/during/after menunjukkan hubungan waktu)
Preposisi menunjukkan hubungan cara:
They hit me with a hammer.
He goes to school on foot.
The cargo was delivered by hand.
Kadang-kadang preposisi dihilangkan:
The rescue team shows (to) me the way out from the jungle.
Kata yang sama dapat berfungsi sebagai sebuah preposisi maupun sebagai adverbia:
You have to put it outside the room (preposisi).
Wait outside and I will meet you! (adverbia).
Konjungsi / Kata Sambung / Conjunction
Konjungsi atau kata sambung adalah kata yang menggabungkan dua kata, dua kelompok kata, atau dua klausa.
red and white (menghubungkan dua kata)
take it or leave it (menghubungkan dua kelompok kata)
I was absent because I got headache yesterday (menghubungkan dua klausa)
Letak konjungsi tidak harus berada di antara kata yang dihubungkan:
Because I got headache yesterday, I was absent.
Although it was raining, the children went on playing.
Sebuah kata dapat berfungsi sebagai konjungsi dalam satu kalimat, tetapi dapat juga berfungsi lain dalam kalimat yang berbeda:
Wash the dishes after you eat! (konjungsi)
Wash the dishes and you may go after! (adverbia)
We let you go after the rain (preposisi).
Looking at the surroundings here where many English courses are growing out side the formal schools, this may be also an indication to the above assumption. If formal schools are offering adequate performance of daily-in use skill of English, then English courses should not have provided general English, except one for TOEFL / IELTS certification or English for special purposes. As a matter of facts, English courses are offering programs of making the students speak as if they have not had got any English lessons at school.
English courses are likely to be more suitable places to learn surviving English rather than schools where students have been learning English for about six years, but have got nothing from their school. It is ironical if a student who exceeds the others and can speak English well then be proud of his English course rather than his formal school.
The other reason for questioning if the teaching process in schools is enigmatic is that the outputs that are not the answer of the job markets. Job vacancies, especially ones of foreign companies, require the applicants to have a good command of English in both written and spoken. In fact, most of applicants often do not meet the requirements; even their written English is under the standard. With this condition, the school outputs finally only fill vacancy of the local companies with less salary.
The inadequate speaking skill the students gain from schools, which is always under the job market, may have been the reason for parents to take any English course after school hours for their children. They have been thinking that English is compulsory for today’s livings. For the relatively rich parents this additional course outside the formal school would not be a financial burden, but it is not for the poor.
The causative factors why graduates from secondary schools do not have an ability to speak English after six years of leaning at school are, among others:
1. English teachers do not (or speak a little) English in class
When the teacher does not speak English, the students will never hear people speaking, nor do they try to speak. Then, how can students speak English if the teacher does not teach to speak and act as a live model? Teachers should encourage their students speak with them, with other students or anyone who may be possible to be their counterpart.
2. English teachers teach only grammatical rules
Teaching grammatical rules would never make the students speak. It would not give the students much help unless the students understand how to use the grammar. In fact, students just memorize the rules but do not ever know the usage. They do not have any ability to apply to the rules. For example: students are learning tenses but they do not know when they should apply tenses to sentences. Grammar should be more appreciative.
3. English teachers do not teach the real materials
The teaching materials are often beyond the daily life. The textbooks are about technical topics such as industry, politics, health and not one of daily life. Teachers teach the students with words like industrialism, liberalism, reformation, which students will never start speaking with such kinds of words. Teachers should teach their student’s vocabulary applicable to the daily life such as ones for introducing, greeting, and asking directions, shopping and the similar activities. Vocabulary should be communicative.
4. Repetition and not subsequence of teaching
When students learn English in Senior High School, the teachers just teach them grammatical rules like ones from Junior High School. Students learn the same materials as what they got from the previous school. Thus, it is only a repetition of materials and not the continuation.
1. English teachers should be more talk-active in the class, as they will never make their students speak without direct speaking model from themselves.
2. Grammar should be applicative so that students can apply the grammatical rules to the commutative language.
3. Vocabulary should be communicative so that the students can start speaking with these words.
4. Teaching that develops materials and not repeats.
Have a nice teaching! From: English Learning Camp.
As the biggest paper manufacturer in the South East Asia, the company has to apply to all the necessities that improve the image of the company to both domestic and international markets. Now, this giant paper mill, PT. Pabrik Kertas Tjiwi Kimia Tbk., is exporting its products to countries all over the world. Taking the role of campaigning smoking ban would certainly be a great support to the WHO-sponsored program: the day without tobacco.
Smoking in the mill areas, more than just the harmful effects to the employees, was to be considered as a dangerous activity. The most apparent danger is the fire risk as most of the raw materials are pulp paper and chemicals, which are inflammable and prone to fire. Another aim of this no-smoking campaign is the real participation of keeping the young people free from the danger of smoking.
The fact that many people have been involved in the bad habit of smoking has drawn the attention of some provincial offices. The Jakarta cosmopolitan office, the main city, has issued a ban of smoking in the public areas. This policy should be a pattern for other provinces to keep people from bad smoking. Considering that nowadays a big number of teenagers have also been toppled into this harmful-to-heath smoking, this policy would be of a great help.
The problem why the government does not straightly impose the ban of producing cigarettes or even close the manufacturers of tobacco and cigarettes is that the fact that this industry has been supporting the revenue with the high tax. It seems that government would be facing the huge loss of income from this double-effect industry.
What the government can do is just to campaign for the harmful effect of smoking without having any enforcement. It would take a high risk to the economic situation to close the industry. Campaigning to avoid life from smoking directly to the public or other means of warnings like enforcement to print a warning about the danger of smoking to health on the packaging. But this does not give any positive impact as no smoker even see it.
In the market, and for the sake of commercial trickery, it has been now a tendency to promote the cigarette branding that misleads smokers into believing that some products are less harmful than other products. Subtle branding like ‘mild’, ‘light’, and ‘law tar’ are generally believed to be healthier and less harmful. The word ‘slim’ can mislead women smokers to the wrong perception that smoking this product will make their body slim. Attractive macho pictures on the packets also mislead teenagers to have belief that to be a man they should have courage of smoking.
Since 2002 it has been illegal under EU legislation for manufacturers to use trademarks, text or any sign to suggest that one tobacco product is less harmful than others are. Banned phrases include "low tar", "light" and "mild". In the UK, the Liberal Democrats are currently trying to reintroduce an amendment to the Health Bill to further restrict branding and designs on packs.
With the above reference, it is the time for the government to think over the legislation to ban the subtle branding that can mislead people to thinking of certain brands are less harmful with the others. The truth is that all cigarettes are equally hazardous, regardless of what color the pack is or what words appear on it. There should be a restriction of producing cigarette packing with such attractive pictures deliberately to tempt people to smoking.
The tobacco and cigarette industry is likely a blade with two sharp sides. On one side, it is generally judged as the agent of the bad habit of living, but on the other hand, the government still has to make money with it. With this condition, we cannot expect more but think over our health.
Have a good life!